According to preliminary investigations, Al-Mabhouh was drugged, electrocuted, and smothered. The suspects, led by Lt. Gen. Dhahi Khalfan Tamim of the Dubai Police Force, followed Al-Mabhouh from Damascus to Dubai. There they believe he was given a dose of sodium pentothal (a common sleep aid) before being killed.
Hamas has accused Israel of killing its leader, saying his death was "a blatant act of terror aimed at undermining Palestinian political unity." An Israeli official said it was unclear if Israel was behind the killing but added that "the possibility cannot be ruled out."
Al-Mabhouh headed the political bureau of Hamas's Gaza wing. He took over from Salah al-Bardawil in January 2005 after Bardawil was elected president of the Palestinian National Authority. Before joining Hamas, al-Mabhouh served several terms in an Israeli prison for organizing attacks against Israelis during the 1980s and 1990s.
He broke away from the group in 2001 to form his own organization, the Islamic Resistance Movement. However, this new movement soon fell apart as well, due to internal disputes.
In April 2006, al-Mabhouh announced that he had reconciled with Hamas and would work with the group from within its government structures.
|Unar Malikshahi (انر ملکشاهی)||amir sipahdar||Husayn Khwarezmi (حسین خوارزمی)|
|Abd al-Rahman Qazwini||a Khurasani rafiq|
|Abu Muslim||ra’is (prefect) of Ray||a friend|
|Abd al-Rahman al-Simirumi (عبد الرحمان السميرمي)||vizier of Seljuq sultan Barkayaruq||Abu Tahir al-Arrani (أبو طاهر الأراني); fled|
Following Yazid's death, the Umayyad kingdom was on the verge of collapse, having lost all lands save the Damascus region. As a result, Mukhtar b. Abi Ubayd al-Thaqafi took advantage of the situation and established himself in Kufa. He quickly gained support from the people there, most of whom were descendants of the Hashimites, who had been expelled from Baghdad by Yazid. In 743, he marched on Damascus where he defeated Sulayman ibn Dawud at the Battle of Marj Dabiq and forced him to flee south. This marked the beginning of the Second Muslim Civil War (744–750), which pitted Mukhtar against another former governor of Iraq, Abd Allah.
Mukhtar's victory proved to be short-lived because shortly afterwards he died in battle against Abd Allah at the age of 54. His son Ali succeeded him as leader of the Kaysaniyya, while his brother Hisham became ruler of Medina.
After Mukhtar's death, Kufa and Basra remained loyal to his son Ali, while Fars stayed with Abd Allah. The latter then invaded Kufa but was defeated by Ali's army at the Battle of Karbala in 750. Abd Allah was killed in this battle, and Fars soon fell to Ali as well. This made Kufa and Basra the only two remaining regions under Ali's control.
Death. Shaybah ibn Rabi'ah hacked off his leg in the Battle of Badr in 624, killing him.
Shaybah was a great-great-grandson of Hashim, one of the founders of Islam. He is said to have been a brave man who took part in all the major battles of the Prophet Muhammad's life. He died during the battle of Badr, when he reached under his shirt to grab a bow that one of the enemy warriors had dropped. A young man named Riyad ashed Shaybah because he did not want him to suffer like their father. However, historians believe that he probably killed an ally of Shaybah's instead.
According to another story, told by Ali ibn Abi Talib (the son-in-law of the Prophet), Shaybah was sitting with some other people outside the city of Mecca when they were attacked by Abu Sufyan al-Hawli. During the attack, Shaybah stood up and fought against Abu Sufyan, but was eventually captured. When asked who his leader was, he replied "Muhammad," before being cut down by a sword blow from Abu Sufyan's son Mu'awiya.
Yazid On October 10, 680 (10 Muharram 61 AH), he was slain and later decapitated by Yazid, along with most of his family and associates, including Husayn's six-month-old son, Ali al-Asghar, and the women and children captured as hostages. The killing took place in Karbala.
Hussein had been preparing for months to fight against Yazid's army, which included a large number of Arab tribes under the command of Abu Sufyan. During this time, he ordered that his palace be made into a mosque and dedicated its first prayer session just days before his death. He also ordered that a shrine be built where he could be buried next to his father Muhammad and his grandson Ali. When news of Hussein's death reached him, Abu Sufyan led an army of nearly 70,000 men against the small group of loyalists left behind by Hussein. Despite being outnumbered, the loyalists were able to defeat Abu Sufyan's army, after which they all committed suicide. This event is now commemorated annually on 10 Muharram in Iraq and around the world.
According to some historians, such as Thomas Arnold, Edward Gibbon, and Bernard Lewis, Hussein was murdered by Yazid's order because he would not convert to Islam; however, this is disputed by other historians such as Paul Johnson and Simon Schama.