The intermixing and gradual evolution of pre-colonial civilizations, colonial influences, and foreign commerce resulted in the formation of Filipino identity. The indigenous Filipinos were originally a tribal people who lived in small communities called "barangays" located within larger kingdoms or "estados." They were ruled over by hereditary kings or "sultans."
In 1521, Spanish explorer Diego de Alvarado reached what is now the city of Manila on his expedition into Asia. He was looking for gold but found many other things instead. Among these were the native tribes that he fought with sabers and guns to establish a colony. After several years, he gave up and left for Spain with his men dead. Without realizing it at the time, Alvarado had laid the foundation for the Philippines' future as a sovereign nation.
Over the next three centuries, the islands passed through the hands of various European powers. In 1815, American President James Monroe declared that the Philippines were an integral part of America and should be free. This act marked the beginning of the end for slavery in the Philippines. In 1898, after months of war, the United States finally took control of the islands. It has been our country ever since.
The Austronesian culture may be found in practically every part of the culture, including ethnicities, languages, food, music, dance, and almost every component of the culture. Spanish influence is visible in the syntax of the Tagalog language, which was the primary language spoken in the Philippines until the mid-20th century.
Filipinos are among the most ethnically diverse populations in the world. The original inhabitants of the Philippines were Negritos, who were followed by various Malayo-Polynesian tribes that came from Indonesia. These were later replaced by Asian immigrants, mainly Chinese and Indian. Today, the majority of the population is made up of people of mixed ancestry, with a significant number of individuals belonging to any one of these groups: 90% indigenous, 5% white, and 5% other.
Filipino identity is based on three elements: race, ethnicity, and nationality. Race refers to physical characteristics shared by members of a species, such as humans or monkeys. Ethnicity refers to the collective memories and beliefs of a group of people sharing a common heritage. Nationality refers to the feelings and actions that define someone as a citizen of a country.
The culture of the Philippines is a hybrid of Eastern and Western influences. This unique culture has been called "the world's first cultural colony."
Filipinos are known for their friendly attitude, hardworking spirit, and love for music, dancing, and food. Also, they are known for their devotion to family; it is no surprise that married couples in the Philippines spend most of their time together with their families. Although there are many other interesting things about Filipino culture, such as their belief system, this article will focus on their history.
The Philippines has a long history of interaction with other countries. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Philippines was visited by Arab traders who settled down and married local women. These Arabs introduced Islam to the Philippines and played an important role in developing early Philippine civilization.
After the Arab traders came European explorers, colonists, and merchants. The Spanish were the first to explore the islands now known as the Philippines. They established outposts on several sites including Manila Bay which is today's capital city, Manila. The Spaniards also built churches, taught the natives how to farm, and made many other changes to the indigenous culture.
These elements all had a role in the emergence of Filipino nationalism. The opening of the Philippines to international or global trade, the emergence of the middle class, and the inflow of liberal ideals from Europe were only a few of the factors that contributed to the Philippines' development into a stable country. Global trade had a significant impact on the growth of the economy and society of the Philippines.
Filipinos were among the first people in the world to feel the effects of globalization. The discovery of gold in 1603 by Spanish explorers in what is now the Philippine capital city of Manila triggered a global gold rush that changed the economic dynamics of the continent. Within a few years, more gold was shipped out of the Philippines than out of all other European countries combined. This boom and bust cycle would continue for several centuries as Europeans competed to exploit the resources of the Philippines.
The opening up of the Philippines to foreign trade also had an effect on national identity. Before the arrival of Europeans, there was no such thing as "the Philippines" since it consisted of hundreds of independent kingdoms and sultanates. The discovery of gold brought about a new form of commerce that required a single authority to regulate trade-related issues. The Spanish government created the office of "adelantado" (admiral) to oversee trade in the region.
During the pre-colonial period of the Philippines, indigenous peoples participated in healthy commerce with diverse cultures and economies in the region, as well as with foreign traders. The pre-colonial Filipinos were mainly composed of Tinguian people of the interior highlands, Malayic-speaking tribes in the west, and Igorot people in the north. Other less numerous ethnic groups included Tagalogs, Lumads (indigenous peoples of the islands), and Muslims in the south.
These various nations or tribes interacted with one another, exchanging goods and ideas, but they also fought among themselves. In fact, most Philippine wars until 1898 were internal conflicts between different tribes or clans within the same community. These battles usually began over control of valuable resources, such as food, land, and trade routes. They often ended up being resolved through more peaceful means, such as arbitration by triumvirates made up of two brothers who would meet to discuss disputes between communities.
The Spaniards arrived on the shores of the Philippines in 1565. Over the next four centuries, Spain and its colonies conducted many campaigns against the indigenous peoples, using both military force and diplomacy to secure control of vast amounts of territory. By the time the Spanish Empire was dissolved in 1814, it had controlled almost all of modern-day the Philippines.
Defining Filipino identity entails thinking about what makes something "not" Filipino. In this example, we're talking about our collective notion of who we are vs who we aren't. This is different from defining the term itself which would be more of an academic exercise.
The first thing to understand is that there is no single definition of what it means to be Filipino. There are various schools of thought on this issue and they all claim to be correct.
Some say that being Filipino is a matter of ancestry while others say it's a matter of culture. Some argue that the nation exists independently of its people while others say that independent existence requires an autonomous economy, government, and society. Some believe that being Filipino means having Philippine citizenship and residing in the Philippines, while others think it can be achieved through residency alone. Some say that being Filipino means loving the country, while others say it's enough to hate its enemies.
There are many views on what it means to be Filipino. However, one thing that almost everyone agrees on is that something is Filipino if it belongs to the Philippines or has been produced in the Philippines. Thus, identifying something as Filipino requires two things: ownership and production within the country's borders.
Now, how do you own something? You buy it!