IS 2190: 1992 "Code of practice for selection, installation, and maintenance of portable first aid fire extinguishers (third version)" provides specifics on maintenance. This standard was initially published in 1962, and it has been amended four times since then: in 1972, 1976, and 1985. It is currently in revision phase IV which is expected to be completed in 1996.
First aid equipment used by firefighters includes bandages, splints, and other medical supplies that may help people who have been injured in fires. Firefighters use these items to treat people who might otherwise die from their injuries. The type of first aid equipment used by firefighters is usually determined by the severity of the injuries that they expect to find. Smaller departments may not have enough resources to provide every type of equipment so they will usually specify what they need. Larger departments may have special facilities where injured persons can be taken for treatment by paramedics or others.
In addition to medical supplies, firefighters often use tools that are designed specifically for moving heavy objects or making tight spots more accessible. These tools include hydraulic jacks, telescoping poles, and cranes. They may also use sledgehammers, axes, and machetes to destroy dangerous materials such as chemicals or wood.
Finally, firefighters may need information about the scene to determine how to proceed safely.
The selection and positioning of Australian Standard (AS) 2444 Portable Fire Extinguishers and Fire Blankets will give extensive and particular information. The main factors to be considered are type, size and material of extinguisher; location of discharge orifice; method of activation. Additional requirements include identification of responsible person and indication of weight limit.
The quality of an AS 2444 extinguisher is indicated by its rating which is found on the side of the container. There are three ratings: A, B and C. An A-rated extinguisher will put out a burning liquid or vapour up to 50 meters away from the source of fire. A B-rated extinguisher will do so up to 20 meters. A C-rated extinguisher will put out smoke but not burnable liquids or vapours. It should be noted that an A-rated extinguisher is sufficient to control fires caused by burning batteries or cables.
Fire blankets are rectangular, heavy-duty aluminum foil sheets with water-resistant adhesive strips on one or both long edges. They can be used to smother hot spots in furniture or carpeting without spreading other fire hazards such as cigarettes or candles. The fire blanket must not be torn, folded, or stretched beyond its original width or length.
BIS has developed over 150 standards for fire safety in buildings and firefighting equipment and systems, the most important of which are: Code of practice for fire safety in buildings (IS 1641 to IS 1646), electrical generating and distributing stations (IS 3034), cotton textile mills (IS 3079), and rubber and plastic (IS 11457). Other relevant codes include: Fire protection systems (ISO 12407) and Fire alarm systems (NFPA 72).
These codes can be found online at www.bis.gov.uk.
In addition, the British Standards Institution has produced a number of guides for businesses wishing to improve their fire safety measures. These include: A guide to fire safety in small businesses (BS EN 14042) which provides advice on how to prevent fire spreading and maintain safe distances between objects at risk from fire; A guide to fire safety in offices (BS EN 14051) which covers issues such as fitting smoke alarms and maintaining fire exits and fire barriers; And a guide to fire safety in factories (BS EN 14052) which focuses on ensuring that workers are aware of fire risks and have taken appropriate precautions.
According to the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) fire code, commercial, industrial, and residential buildings must have fire extinguishers and other forms of fire protection equipment on hand. These items include fire alarms with working batteries, fire doors, fire-resistant construction, and smoke detectors.
Fire extinguishers use water, carbon dioxide, halons, or other agents to put out fires. They should always be available in all work areas, including storage rooms and vehicles.
Building owners and managers should also take steps to prevent the spread of fire, such as installing fire stops in walls and floors and maintaining them properly. The use of smoke detectors is also very important in keeping people alive if there is a fire inside the building.
There are three main types of fire extinguishers: dry chemical, wet chemical, and powder. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages. Dry chemical extinguishers contain a flammable liquid that evaporates quickly when exposed to heat, which allows firefighters to put out small fires with only one chemical charge. Wet chemical extinguishers work better for large fires because they contain a more effective amount of water. Powder extinguishers are the most effective tool for putting out deep fryer oil fires or grease traps.