Many factors contribute to violence, including "frustration, exposure to violent media, violence in the home or neighborhood, and a predisposition to view other people's acts as hostile even when they are not."'
These factors can either trigger violence directly (as in exposing children to violence at home or in the community) or they can increase its likelihood (as when someone who is frustrated with life chooses to act out against others).
Here are some common examples of factors that contribute to violence:
Frustration - When someone is frustrated with their situation in life they may feel like harming someone else for it. This could be because they lack something necessary for happiness (such as security or recognition from others), or it could be because of an actual threat to their well-being (for example, if a friend or family member was hurting them they might choose to hurt them back).
Media Violence - Media violence includes television shows, movies, and video games that feature violence. These forms of media can influence what kind of behavior individuals think is acceptable or not. For example, a young person might see another person get away with shooting someone else in a movie or game and believe that it is okay to shoot people in real life too.
Family violence is caused by deeply held views about masculinity. Perpetrators frequently blame their violent outbursts on other people, drink, or circumstances. Perpetrators frequently minimize, blame others, rationalize, or deny their use of violence or its consequences.
Home violence includes acts of abuse that occur in the home between spouses or other family members, as well as acts of violence that occur within non-family settings such as domestic violence shelters and safe houses. Acts of home violence can be physical, sexual, or psychological; may include threats of harm; and often result in injuries to persons or damage to property.
The factors that cause one person to act violently toward another person in his or her own home are many and varied. Some possible causes of home violence include: a history of violence in the home; mental illness; drug or alcohol abuse; financial problems; social isolation; and previous exposure to violence at an early age.
Acts of home violence can be intentional or unintentional. Intentional acts of home violence include beating someone with intent to injure them; shooting at someone with intent to kill; and throwing something at someone with intent to hurt them. Unintentional acts of home violence include pushing or shoving someone; grabbing for something that could be used as a weapon; and failing to give someone the attention they need.
Hostile aggression is driven by sentiments of rage with the desire to cause hurt; an example of hostile aggression is a brawl at a bar with a stranger. This type of violence is often motivated by alcohol or other drug use.
Indirect aggression is used by teachers to punish students by denying them academic success, limiting their opportunities, or making their life difficult in some other way. The aim is to hurt morale and discourage effort. This form of aggression can be very damaging to the psyche of the victim.
The best example of indirect aggression would be peer bullying. This type of hostility is often directed at those who are weaker than the bully themselves, such as younger siblings or children with disabilities. It may also be aimed at those who cannot fight back, such as older students or women.
Peer bullying can take many forms including physical attacks, name-calling, spreading rumors, and creating distractions so others can be beaten up. Cyberbullying is a new type of bullying that uses electronic technology such as computers, smartphones, and social media sites like Facebook to harass others.
Indirect methods are also used by parents to discipline their children. If a parent denies a child access to a favorite toy or removes a privilege such as phone time this is an example of indirect punishment.