Physical controls such as fences, locks, and alarm systems are examples; technological controls such as antivirus software, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems (IPSs) are examples; and administrative controls such as separation of roles, data categorization, and auditing are examples. Controls can be divided into four categories: preventative, detective, corrective, and deterrent.
Preventative controls aim to prevent problems from occurring in the first place. For example, a firewall prevents unauthorized individuals from accessing a network, while antivirus software prevents malware from spreading across a network. Detective controls seek to identify problems after they have already occurred. For example, an IPS alerts system administrators when someone tries to break into a network, while log analysis tools help investigators find evidence that might not be apparent to everyone else.
Corrective controls correct mistakes or violations of policy. For example, employee training programs aim to correct past errors or violations by teaching new skills or changing old habits. Disciplinary actions such as firing employees who repeatedly make mistakes are examples of corrective control.
Deterrent controls discourage future misconduct by others or by themselves. For example, job rewards and penalties may serve as deterrents against theft or other misconduct. So too may the threat of punishment or loss of access to sensitive information.
Security controls work together to provide protection for our networks and computers.
Types of Control Authentication solutions, firewalls, antivirus software, intrusion detection systems (IDSs), intrusion prevention systems (IPSs), limited interfaces, access control lists (ACLs), and encryption measures are some popular examples. Authentication is proving to be one of the most effective ways to prevent hackers from entering your network. Basic authentication requires that you establish a link with the computer user by asking for a username and password. It's very easy to implement and use and works well across large organizations.
Firewalls are used to block unauthorized connections to a network. They are useful for restricting incoming connections while allowing selected services to pass through. Firewalls can be configured to permit or deny traffic based on port number, protocol type, source IP address, or destination IP address. They can also be set up to allow certain types of applications through. Most firewalls have a default policy setting that allows any connection request through. This means that unless you specifically block these requests, your firewall will allow users to connect to other computers on your network.
Antivirus software scans files for viruses. It can also scan email messages and web pages for threats. Antivirus software is necessary because even though browsers such as Internet Explorer and Firefox protect users from downloading malware onto their computers, they can still be infected with viruses when browsing the web. An example of malware is a program that hides itself among legitimate software.
Software controls, physical hardware controls, computer operation controls, data security controls, system implementation process controls, and administrative controls are examples of general controls. These controls help ensure that information systems operate properly and provide reasonable protection against unauthorized use or disclosure of sensitive information.
Software controls are mechanisms used to protect data by applying software filters to limit the number of files that can be opened or programs that can be run. For example, a company may use software controls to prevent users from editing certain important documents with word processing software.
Physical hardware controls include those devices that physically restrict access to computers. For example, a company may require users to insert a special keycard into their laptop to enable it to be powered on. If a lost or stolen card is detected, an alarm will sound and security personnel will be notified. The card must be removed to reset the alarm. This prevents unauthorized persons from using these laptops.
Computer operation controls are mechanisms that limit the actions that users can take on a computer. For example, a company may disable the print function to prevent users from printing confidential information out of place. Data security controls include any mechanism used to protect data in its storage location or transport it from one point to another. This includes methods such as encryption and password protection.
Locked doors, signs denoting restricted areas, surveillance cameras, onsite security guards, and alarms are all examples of standard measures. Barriers such as vault rooms, data centers, and magnetic locks that protect the entire facility are also used.
Physical security measures should not be confused with information technology (IT) controls. For example, a locked door would be considered a physical safeguard, while setting up an authentication protocol using passwords or personal identification numbers (PINs) would be an IT control.
Information about a patient's health history may include details about their vaccinations, allergies, blood types, and other medical conditions. This is important information that can help doctors provide appropriate treatments or avoid potential problems during a procedure. Patients have a right to know what kind of security protections exist to prevent unauthorized people from accessing this sensitive information.
In addition to physical security measures, computers play a vital role in ensuring privacy. Only certain users should be allowed to access patients' records, for example, by requiring them to enter a password or identify card. This prevents anyone with access to the computer system itself - including hackers - from reading private information.
The main goal of physical security is to prevent harm to people or property.
Controls over the information technology (IT) environment, computer operations, access to programs and data, program creation, and program updates are examples of general computer controls. Controls can be classified as administrative or technical.
Administrative controls include those procedures that ensure the security of information systems by restricting who has permission to perform specific actions. This type of control includes such methods as user identification and authentication, role-based access control (RBAC), and entity integrity checking. Technical controls include hardware and software mechanisms that restrict what a user can do with regard to a computer system. For example, technical controls may include firewalls, password policies, and encryption standards.
Administrative controls should be applied to all computers, even if they are not connected to a network. Technical controls should only be applied to active computers in an effort to limit the damage that could be done if a computer was accessed by someone who did not have authorization to view or change data.
It is important to understand that neither administrative nor technical controls are foolproof. Any method for authenticating users or devices capable of accessing computers without requiring direct human interaction (for example, through voice recognition or biometric identifiers) is likely to reduce the risk of unauthorized access.
Security controls are divided into three categories or regions. Management security, operational security, and physical security controls are examples of these. Management security controls include such things as employee access policies and internal network design. Operational security controls include such things as phone systems and data encryption. Physical security controls include such things as building entrances and surveillance cameras.
Management security is used to protect management information about an organization. This includes the people in an organization who have access to key resources or important business decisions, such as ownership interests or financial accounts. For example, management should not be able to read executive emails without a special authorization process in place. Operations security is used to protect organizational assets and transactions. This includes anything from confidential customer information to proprietary technology. For example, operations security ensures that employees do not have access to important company information via email. Physical security is used to protect physical facilities and equipment. This includes everything from guard patrols at buildings to surveillance cameras on utility boxes.
Management security concerns apply to all organizations, no matter how small. Even very small businesses need management security measures in place to prevent theft or misuse of information regarding owners, employees, customers, partners, and projects.
Operational security and physical security concerns are more relevant for organizations that handle sensitive information.