When an attacker is able to link a record owner to a sensitive attribute in a public data table, a privacy concern develops. These are referred to as record linkage, attribute linkage, and table linkage, in that order. For example, if a username and password were linked to a person's email address, someone could use this information to create multiple accounts under one name or change their own information without having to remember all of their usernames and passwords.
Record linkage occurs when there is a relationship between two or more records that can be used to identify or re-identify the individuals involved. This might occur, for example, if you wrote bad reviews about your neighbors on review sites like Yelp or Zagats. These negative comments would be available to anyone who found them, and they could be used to link your account with others that may have had negative experiences with other people living in the same house as you.
Attribute linkage occurs when an individual's private attributes are available in a public data set, making it possible to associate those attributes with other individuals in the dataset. For example, if we know that John Smith owns a home value of $200,000, we could look up his name and address in public records and find out that he owned the home years ago. This would be an attribute linkage issue because his personal information was accessible via a public database.
Privacy problems with social networking sites are a subset of data privacy, comprising the right to dictate personal privacy in the storage, re-purposing, distribution to third parties, and presentation of information belonging to oneself over the Internet. Social networking sites allow people to create public or private profiles containing personal information about themselves. This information may include age, gender, physical appearance, interests, hobbies, political views, religion, and location. The nature of this information means that it is not used solely for the purposes of maintaining the user's account; rather, it can be exploited by others to identify, target, and harass users.
One area where social networking sites have caused controversy is their use of personal information. Users may choose to make their profiles public, which means that anyone using the site can view their profile. Or they can select certain categories of friends who can view their information, and other categories who cannot. Finally, some sites allow you to block individuals from seeing your profile completely.
Another common problem arises from the fact that many social networking sites keep track of what websites you visit. This allows them to show you relevant ads on other sites. It also allows them to build up detailed pictures of what you like and don't like. However, this tracking can be problematic if you change your mind about being part of the social network then there is no easy way to remove yourself from the database.
A privacy assault leverages seemingly benign published information to determine people' private details, proving that such information violates privacy. For example, if someone knows your mother's maiden name, they can use this information to discover other things about you. This type of attack can be used for good purposes, such as helping someone find relatives they haven't heard from in years. But it can also be used for malicious purposes, such as stealing your identity.
Privacy attacks rely on collecting and analyzing data about you in order to identify details such as your friends, email address, physical location, or financial situation. Such attacks can be done directly by an individual, but they can also be done by companies with access to large datasets. For example, if you use Facebook to log in to other websites, they can collect information about you over time in order to build a profile of your online behavior. This information can then be used to target ads at you directly through Facebook, or others, without your knowledge.
There are two types of privacy attacks: information disclosure and resource depletion. In an information disclosure attack, the goal is to reveal information about you, your friends, or anyone else.
Data confidentiality refers to the protection of data against unintended, illegal, or unauthorized access, disclosure, or theft. Confidentiality refers to the privacy of information, as well as the authority to access, distribute, and utilize it. To avoid identity theft, Social Security numbers must be kept private. When hiring employees, employers need to make sure that they aren't disclosing too much information about their clients.
Data confidentiality is required by law in some countries. For example, in the United States, federal laws such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) require that any information about an individual's health care be kept confidential. Violation of this requirement can result in severe penalties including fines and imprisonment.
In addition, some companies have internal policies that protect sensitive information. For example, Google has a policy of not selling or giving away user email addresses. If someone discovers your Gmail address through another means, you will never receive emails from them!
Finally, certain actions cannot reveal information about data subjects. For example, an employee cannot order food for themselves at their desk, because doing so would allow others to know what foods they like.
Confidentiality also includes the right of individuals to control how their data is used. For example, when applying for a job, candidates should be given options to opt out of having their background check conducted.
Privacy implies that no party should be able to discover anything other than innocuous information supplied by other parties and the prescribed output of SNAM tasks. There is a privacy leakage if any adversarial assault may be used to learn any private and sensitive data. For example, if person A sends email to person B, then B can use reverse address lookup or DNS queries to find out who sent this message. If B knows that C owns a web site at www.example.com, then B could look up C's IP address and find out that it belongs to person A. From this point on, anyone who controls IP address A will know that person B lives in house C! This attack is called "reverse address lookup" or "DNS query poisoning". It is possible to perform many other attacks as well using only information from a privacy leaky service.
Privacy leaks occur when services provide information about their users that could not have been obtained otherwise. Examples include cross-site tracking, where one page on a site tracks visitors across other pages within the site; and third-party trackers, which follow visitors around the Internet by embedding images or scripts into different sites. These types of services without proper protection mechanisms allow attackers to obtain personal information about users' activities outside of the service itself. For example, an attacker may use third-party tracker images to identify which other websites people visit.