UNIFORM DEFINITIONS AND RECOMMENDED DATA ELEMENTS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE * Physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression are the four different categories of violence specified as data items. These categories should be asked about for each victim/perpetrator relationship.
Data on intimate partner violence (IPV) include information on the type and severity of abuse, who was involved in the incident, when it occurred, and any related injuries or health problems. The following questions are recommended for inclusion in any study of IPV.
Physical Violence: Have you been hit by your partner or forced to have physical contact with him/her? Yes No Don't know/Not sure
Sexual Violence: Has your partner made sexual demands of you? Yes No Don't know/N/A
In addition to these questions, researchers should collect data on other types of violence that may occur within intimate relationships, such as child abuse and elder abuse.
Injuries or death, chronic pain, gastrointestinal and gynecological disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are among the harmful physical and mental health repercussions of intimate partner violence (IPV), according to Campbell (2002). (PTSD). Children who experience domestic violence are more likely to exhibit behavioral problems, such as aggression toward others and self-injurious behaviors like cutting themselves, when they are growing up.
Long-term psychological effects can also arise without visible injury. For example, research has shown that children who have experienced domestic violence are at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders and experiencing depression later in life. They are also more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol themselves.
Domestic violence has been linked to suicide, too. In a study of more than 3,000 women in eight countries, researchers found that those who had been abused by their partners were three times more likely to kill themselves than other women. The authors of the study concluded that violence against women is a global public health issue that should be given attention by policymakers.
Men who have experienced domestic violence may not show obvious signs of trauma but may suffer similar long-term effects. For example, research has shown that men who have been abused by their partners are more likely to become depressed or anxious later in life. Also, like women, men who have been abused by their partners are more likely to harm themselves.
IPV refers to abusive and violent activities committed by abusers in order to satisfy their craving for power and control. Physical violence sometimes involves denying a spouse medical treatment or pushing him or her to use alcohol or drugs. >>> Sexual abuse is defined as coercing or attempting to force any sexual contact or conduct without permission. Emotional abuse includes humiliating someone, making them feel bad about themselves, or causing them to feel isolated from others.
An IPV worker provides support to victims through various forms of intervention such as counseling, shelter care, and legal advocacy. The role of an IPV worker is often that of a liaison between victims and other agencies such as hospitals, social services, law enforcement, and community groups. Workers may also provide education to members of the public on issues related to intimate partner violence.
Who are IPV victims? Abusers tend to be responsible for the violence they inflict because it gives them a sense of power and control. Victims are usually people who lack physical strength or resources to defend themselves. They may be elderly individuals living on their own, women with small children, or men who work at high-risk jobs such as police officers or firefighters.
Intimate partner violence affects approximately one in four American women and one in twelve men. Children often suffer psychological effects from seeing their parents fight or from witnessing acts of violence. If your parent is an abuser, you may experience feelings such as fear, anxiety, sadness, anger, and guilt.
Women bear the lion's share of the worldwide burden of IPV. Although women can be violent in relationships with men, frequently in self-defense, and violence can occur in same-sex couples, male intimate partners or ex-partners are the most prevalent perpetrators of violence against women (1). Women are abused by their spouses, boyfriends, long-term partners, and former spouses/long-term partners. The proportion of women who report being physically assaulted by their partner ranges from 10% to 60%. Rates of sexual assault are even higher—one study found that more than one third of all women have been sexually assaulted by an intimate partner.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes physical, sexual, emotional, and psychological abuse between people who are in a relationship oppressing another person. This could be a spouse, girlfriend, boyfriend, long-term partner, or someone else who has a romantic relationship with the victim. Abuse can occur in any type of relationship, including married couples, co-habiting partners, friends with benefits, etc. Abusers may use their position of power to control their partners through fear of reprisal if they break up, isolation of the victim from family and friends, withholding of love and affection, and controlling behaviors such as limiting his or her contact with other people.
Controlling behaviors are actions used by an abuser to keep his or her partner under his or her thumb.
Quick Reference to the Five IPv4 Classes There are five classes of IPv4 addresses: A, B, C, D, and E. Each class has its own set of IP addresses (and ultimately dictates the number of devices you can have on your network). The majority of Internet-connected devices employ classes A, B, and C. Class A addresses are intended for the most important sites on the Web. They should be used only as a last resort because they are the most expensive to obtain. Class B addresses are next in importance. They can be used by any site that does not require any special treatment. Most private networks use only Class B addresses. Class C addresses are the most common type of address. They can be used by any device that needs internet connectivity. They are usually assigned by registrars who earn money from their use. Class D addresses are like Class C addresses but they are also used by organizations that need to provide private networks to certain users; for example, banks.
In conclusion, there are only five classes of IP addresses: A, B, C, D, and E.