IPv6 also allows for more secure name resolution. The Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) protocol can provide cryptographic validation that a host is who it claims to be at the moment of connection. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) poisoning and other naming-based attacks are made more difficult as a result. ARP cache poisoning involves tampering with the entries in the address resolution cache, which is implemented using the ICMP echo request message.
The fundamental objective of IPv6 is to enable for the creation of additional unique TCP/IP address identifiers, as we have exhausted the 4.3 billion provided by IPv4. One of the primary reasons why IPv6 is such a significant breakthrough for the Internet of Things is because of this (IoT). The number of possible IP addresses is expected to run out around 2038 if no action is taken now. While this may not seem like a long time, it is estimated that the world's economy could be reduced by 7 percent if users were to stop using IPv6 for a year.
The need for IPv6 is becoming increasingly evident as our existing IPv4 addresses are running out. In addition, most manufacturers only provide IPv4 support with their products, so in order to use them on the Internet, you will need to buy more devices. This is causing problems for companies who want to extend access to their services via the Internet to many more people or devices. It also has implications for consumers who want to connect several IoT devices together. There aren't enough addresses to go around for everyone.
There are two main methods used for assigning IP addresses. Shared IP addresses are assigned to organizations who pay a fee to be part of the allocation process. These addresses are then distributed to members who need them. Because shared IP addresses are limited in quantity, they are best used for small organizations or individuals who do not require large blocks of private IP addresses.
This paper defines the IP Version 6 Neighbor Discovery protocol. Neighbor Discovery is used by nodes on the same connection to identify each other's presence, determine each other's link-layer addresses, find routers, and retain reachability information about the pathways to active neighbors. This document specifies an extension of Neighbor Discovery for use with IP version 6 (IPv6). The extension is called "ND6" or "Neighbor Discovery for IPv6".
Protocol for Neighbor Discovery Say it out loud: In the link layer, IPv6 supports the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP, ND), which is based on ICMPv6 and multicast transmission. In a local area network (LAN), IPv6 hosts validate the uniqueness of their IPv6 addresses by sending a neighbor solicitation message requesting the link-layer address of the IP address. If the host receives a response, then the addresses are not duplicated and thus unique. Otherwise, the host would have to send another request. The neighbor advertisement message contains the address information and can be sent at any time, so it can be used to update existing addresses or to request new addresses if an organization wants to ensure that no two hosts have the same address.
In IPv4 networks, routers use routing tables to forward packets to destinations. With IPv6, this function is performed by nodes in the network. Routers play an important role in this process by acting as gateways between different networks. However, small subnets may not have a router available to them and thus they cannot receive traffic from outside their network. These "isolated" subnets are called "private" addresses and must be configured manually. There are three main methods for assigning private addresses: auto-discovery, auto-configuration, and RAN-based allocation.
Auto-discovery allows hosts to automatically obtain private addresses. This is done by sending probe messages into the network looking for other hosts with private addresses.
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworking that supports end-to-end datagram transfer over various IP networks while keeping closely to the architectural principles established in the protocol's previous version, Internet Protocol Version 4. (IPv4). In addition to providing other addresses, such as private address space and reserved addresses, IPv6 allows a virtually unlimited number of host identifiers to be assigned to a single IPv4 address.
The goal of creating a separate protocol for addressing hosts and devices on the network was to avoid conflict between different protocols that might exist on a single computer or device. For example, if both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols were used on a single machine, it would be difficult to know which address to use when sending information to this computer or device. With IPv6, any device or host can have its own unique identifier called an "IPv6 address". This address is composed of 128 bits rather than 32 bits as with IPv4. The vast number of possible addresses makes it unlikely that two devices will have the same address. Also, because each address is 64 kilobytes, it can hold much more information than an IPv4 address.
IPv6 provides many new features and improvements over IPv4, including: